2008年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第二篇】(2008年考研英语)

2008年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第二篇】(2008年考研英语)缩略图
2024年 2月 13日 0 Comments

passage2注解:标题为红色,翻译为蓝色,分析为绿色。????????????it used to be so straightforward. a team of researchers working together in the laboratory would submit the results of their research to a journal. a journal editor would then remove the author’s names and affiliations(((与政治、宗教等组织的)联系,从属关系,文章中是指代文章作者所属机构相关信息)) from the paper and send it to their peers for review. depending on the comments received, the editor would accept the paper for publication or decline(下降,拒绝(文章取这个意思)) it. copyright rested with(rest?with取决于,在于
2008年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第二篇】(2008年考研英语)插图
)? the journal publisher, and researchers seeking knowledge of the results would have to subscribe to the journal.
????????????no longer. the internet—and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government–funded research by restricting access to it—is making access to scientific results a reality. the organization for economic co-operation and development (oecd) has just issued a report describing the far-reaching consequences of this. the report, by john houghton of victoria university in australia and graham vickery of the oecd, makes heavy reading for publishers who have, so far, made handsome(帅气的,大量的(这里取这个意思)) profits. but it goes further than that. it signals a change in what has, until now, been a key element of scientific endeavor(努力,尽力(等于 endeavour)).

1.handsome(男子)英俊的,帅气的;(女子)端庄健美的;宽敞而美观的,宏伟的;慷慨的,气量大的;(金额)可观的,优厚的;(礼品、奖品)贵重的,值钱的;(胜利)重大的。为什么handsome即可指帅气,又可以指端庄,又可以指大量的呢,还可以指重大成功的重大呢?因为handsome=hand手里+some一些=手里有一些资本=手里有一些资本,比如颜值也是一种资本,金钱也是一种资本,胜利的成就也是一种资本。
2.?but it goes further than that.字面意思就是它会比这走得更远,显然这里的“走”,它是有指代的,具体什么指代,你得看下文。一般来说,都是表示意义会走得更远,所以这里翻译:它的意义会比这走得更远。
3.endeavour努力,尽力 记忆法:endeavour=end终结+ea(easy)容易+vour(tour)旅行=终结了人生容易的旅行,现在的路不再那么容易了,所以需要努力和尽力的时刻到了=努力,尽力

? ?????????the value of knowledge and the return on the public investment in research depends, in part, upon wide distribution and ready access. it is big business(bussiness如果上文在说某个公司,那么这里就是公司的意思。如果上文在说某个领域,那么这里就是产业的意思).?. in america, the core scientific publishing market is estimated at between $7 billion and $11 billion. the international association of scientific, technical and medical publishers says that there are more than 2,000 publishers worldwide specializing in these subjects. they publish more than 1.2 million articles each year in some 16,000 journals.
????????????this is now changing. according to the oecd report, some 75% of scholarly journals are now online. entirely new business models are emerging; three main ones were identified by the report’s authors. there is the so-called big deal, where institutional subscribers pay for access to a collection of online journal titles through site-licensing(许可;批准license) agreements. there is open-access publishing, typically supported by asking the author (or his employer) to pay for the paper to be published. finally, there are open-access archives(archive文档), where organizations such as universities or international laboratories support institutional repositories(repository 贮藏室,这里指知识的贮藏室或者说知识库). other models exist that are hybrids(hybrid杂交,混血)? of these three, such as delayed open-access, where journals allow only subscribers to read a paper for the first six months, before making it freely available to everyone who wishes to see it. all this could change the traditional form of the peer-review process, at least for the publication of papers.
一、文章结构分析
本文是一篇说明文。
文章主要说明了学术期刊出版发生的变化,一种新型出版业——网络出版的出现及其对传统出版业的影响。
第一段介绍了传统学术期刊出版的流程和特点。
第二段说明网络对出版的重要影响,出现了免费使用科研成果的趋势。这不仅影响传统出版业的利润,而且标志着科学方面的重大变化。
第三段用数据表明学术出版业是一个利润巨大的行业。
第四段说明网络改变了刊物出版的传统形式,介绍了出版业现今一些全新的出版形式。
末句总结全文,呼应文首,指出学术期刊出版已经发生改变。

26. in the first paragraph, the author discusses.
[a] the background information of journal editing
[b] the publication routine of laboratory reports
[c] the relations of authors with journal publishers
[d] the traditional process of journal publication
26.作者在第一段论述的是 。
[a] 期刊编辑的背景知识
[b] 实验报告的出版流程
[c] 作者与期刊出版商的关系
[d] 传统的期刊出版过程

27. which of the following is true of the oecd report?
[a] it criticizes government-funded research.
[b] it introduces an effective means of publication.
[c] it upsets profit-making journal publishers.
[d] it benefits scientific research considerably.
27.下面那一项是有关经合组织报告的正确说法?
[a] 它批评了政府资助的研究项目。
[b] 它标志着一种有效的出版方式的开始。
[c] 它让获利的期刊出版商悻然不快。
[d] 它使科研受益匪浅。

28. according to the text, online publication is significant in that.
[a] it provides an easier access to scientific results
[b] it brings huge profits to scientific researchers
[c] it emphasizes the crucial role of scientific knowledge
[d] it facilitates public investment in scientific research
28.根据文章,网络出版的重要意义在于 。
[a] 它提供了使用科研资源的便捷方式
[b] 它给科研人员带来了巨大的利润
[c] 它强调了科学知识的关键作用
[d] 它促进了科研的公共投资

29. with the open-access publishing model, the author of a paper is required to.
[a] cover the cost of its publication
[b] subscribe to the journal publishing it
[c] allow other online journals to use it freely
[d] complete the peer-review before submission
29.在开放存取出版模式中,论文作者被要求 。
[a] 承担出版成本
[b] 订阅发表论文的期刊
[c] 允许其它在线期刊免费使用他的论文
[d] 在递交论文之前完成同行专家评议

30. which of the following best summarizes the text?
[a] the internet is posing a threat to publishers.
[b] a new mode of publication is emerging.
[c] authors welcome the new channel for publication.
[d] publication is rendered easily by online service.
30.下面哪一项最恰当地概括了本文的主旨大意?
[a] 网络对出版商正在构成威胁。
[b] 新的出版模式正在出现。
[c] 论文作者乐意接受出版新渠道。
[d] 在线服务使出版更容易。
二、核心词汇与超纲词汇1. straightforward a. 直截了当的;坦率的;简单的
2. submit v. 服从;提出
3. affiliation n. 隶属关系,隶属机构
4. rest with sb. 是……的责任或份内的事
5. subscribe v. 签名;捐款;订购
6. handsome a. 漂亮的,英俊的;美观的;数量大的
7. heavy/ light reading 读起来费力/ 轻松的阅读材料
8. hybrid n. 杂种;混血儿
9. archive n. 档案文件
三、阅读答案:d c a a b四、全文翻译:?????????这曾经是简单、直接的一件事。一个实验室中的研究组将他们的研究结果呈递给一份专业刊物。此刊物的编辑隐去论文作者的名字和所属机构,然后送交同行专家评议,并根据得到的评价决定是否刊登这篇论文。论文的版权归刊物出版商,其他寻找相关知识的研究者只有通过订阅此刊物才能获取该研究结果。
????????但这种行为将成为历史了。许多基金会质问为何商业刊物可以通过限制科研成果的使用从政府资助的研究项目中获利,这种压力和网络的发展使免费使用科研成果变成现实。经济合作与发展组织最近发表报告评论了此举的深远影响。这篇由澳大利亚维多利亚大学的约翰?豪斯和经合组织的格莱汉姆?维克利共同撰写的报告让那些获取了巨大利润的出版商读起来心情沉重。但它的意义并不仅至于此,它还表明目前科学研究中一个关键要素发生了改变。
????????知识的价值和公共科研投资的回报在某种程度上取决于广泛的传播和方便的获取。这是一个大产业。据估算,美国科研核心刊物的市场价值大约在 70 亿到 110 亿美元之间。国际科技与医学出版商协会称,目前全球有超过 2000 家的出版公司从事此领域的出版,他们每年在近 16,000 种刊物中刊登超过 120万篇文章。
????????这一切正在改变,根据经合组织的报告,目前已有 75%的学术刊物可以在线阅读。全新的出版模式正在形成。报告的作者提到了三种主要的模式。第一种是所谓的“一揽子捆绑销售”,机构订户通过许可协议付费阅读一系列电子期刊。第二种是开放存取式出版,主要依靠作者或其雇主支付论文出版费用。第三种是开放式归档,要求诸如大学或者国际实验室支持的机构知识库。其他的模式是这三种的混合体,即,一些刊物前六个月只允许付费订阅者阅读论文,然后才以免费模式提供给所有想阅读的人。这一切都将改变传统的同行评议程序,至少对于论文出版是如此。

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