2019年考研英语一真题及答案详解完整版-20220902.docx(2019年考研英语二真题及答案)

2019年考研英语一真题及答案详解完整版-20220902.docx(2019年考研英语二真题及答案)缩略图
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1、精选优质文档-倾情为你奉上精选优质文档-倾情为你奉上专心-专注-专业专心-专注-专业精选优质文档-倾情为你奉上专心-专注-专业2019年考研英语一真题及答案详解完整版2019年考研英语一真题及答案详解 section use of english directions:read the following text. choose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and mark a, b, c or d on the answer sheet.(10 points)today we live in a world where gps syste

2、ms, digital maps, and other navigation apps are available on our smart phones. 1 of us just walk straight into the woods without a phone. but phones 2 on batteries, and batteries can die faster than we realize. 3 you get lost without a phone or a compass, and you 4 cant find north, a few tricks to h

3、elp you navigate 5 to civilization, one of which is to follow the landwhen you find yourself well 6 a trail, but not in a completely 7 area, you have to answer two questions:which 8 is downhill, in this particular area? and where is the nearest water source? humans overwhelmingly live in valleys, an

4、d on supplies of fresh water.9 ,if you head downhill, and follow any h2o you find, you should 10 see signs of people.if youve explored the area before, keep an eye out for familiar sightsyou may be 11 how quickly identifying a distinctive rock or tree can restore yourbearings.another12 : climb high

5、and look for signs of human habitation.13 , even in dense forest, you should be able to 14 gaps in the tree line due to roads, train tracks, and other paths people carve 15 the woods. head toward these 16 to find a way out. at night, scan the horizon for 17 light sources, such as fires and streetlig

6、hts, then walk toward the glow of light pollution.18 , assuming youre lost in an area humans tend to frequent, look for the19 we leave on the landscape. trail blazes, tire tracks, and other features can 20 you to civilization.asomebmostcfewdall【答案】c【解析】首句为主题句:今天,我们生活在一个gps系统,数字地图和其他导航应用程 序都在我们的智能手机上

7、唾手可得的世界。空格所在句指出:我们中 在没有电话,个人 gps或其他导航工具的情况下直接走进树林。本句有without与few构成双重否定表肯定,根 据语义应该填入few(几乎没有人),符合文意。aputbtakecrundcome【答案】c【解析】run on battery表示手机用电池发动,运行。其他选项:put on (穿上;使运 转);take on (承担;呈现);come on (快点;开始),语义不通顺。故正确答案为 c run。asinceb ifcthoughduntil【答案】b【解析】空格所在句译文: 你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路, 找不到北方, 我们有一些技巧可

8、以 助你导航 文明。此处为假设的情况,故填入if(如果)符合上下文 的表达。其余选项:since (因为;自从), though (虽然), until (直到)带入后, 语义不通顺。故正确答案为b if。aformallyb relativelyc graduallyd literally【答案】d【解析】空格所在句译文: 你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路, 找不到北方, 我们有一些技巧可以 助你导航 文明。此处literally表示确实地,真正地,带入原文语义 通顺:你的确找不到北方。其余选项:formally (正式地),relatively(相对地), gradually(逐渐地)带入

9、后,语义不通顺。故正确答案为d literally.a backb nextc aroundd away【答案】a【解析】空格所在句译文: 你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路, 找不到北方, 我们有一些技巧可以 助你导航 文明。前文讲lost(迷路),此处填入back(回到)文 明之地相互呼应,故正确答案为a back。aontoboffcacrossdalone【答案】b【解析】空格所在句的句意为:当你 路径,但不是完全 的区域,你需要回答两 个问题:在这个特殊区域,哪儿条路是下坡?哪儿里有最近的水源?通过后半句的问题,能 够了解到前面是当你偏离轨道,迷失踪迹的时候。b选项off (远离,离开

10、)符合语义要求; a选项onto(在之上),c选项across(穿过,横穿),d选项alone(独自地,单独地) 带入空格后,语义不通顺,均排除。故正确答案为b选项off。aunattractiveb uncrowdedcunchangeddunfamiliar【答案】d【解析】空格所在句的前一句说迷失踪迹,偏离轨道。空格所在的后半句but开头,所 填入的形容词词需要和前面构成转折的逻辑关系,虽然偏离轨道,但也不是完全不熟悉的 路。只有d选项unfamiliar(不熟悉的,不常见的)符合要求;a选项unattractive(不吸引 人的),b选uncrowded(不拥挤的,宽敞的),c选项un

11、changed(未改变的,无变化 的)带入后,语义不通顺。故正确答案为dunfamiliar。asitebpointcwaydplace【答案】c【解析】空格所在句的句意:你需要回答两个问题:在这个特殊区域,哪儿个 是下 坡?哪儿里有最近的水源?空格处所需的名词需要符合上下文语境。c选项way(道路)符合 语义要求;a选项site(地点,位置,场所),b选项point(要点),d选项place(地方, 地点)带入空格后,语义不通顺,均排除。故正确答案为c选项way。asobyetcinsteaddbesides【答案】a【解析】空格所在句的前一句指出:生活在山谷中的人,基本都靠淡水为生。后面也

12、就 是空格所在句: 如果你下山,沿着水走,你会发现人类的迹象很明显空格处所填 入的连词和前面构成因果的逻辑关系,只有a选项so(所以,因此)符合要求;b选项 yet(但是,然而),c选instead(代替,反而),d选项besides(此外,而且)带入后, 语义不通顺。故正确答案为aso。aimmediatelyb intentionallycunexpectedlyd eventually【答案】d【解析】空格所在句的句意:所以如果你下山,沿着你找到的水一直走,你 会看 到人类的迹象,空格处所需的副词需要符合本句语境并是句子语义通顺。d选项 eventually (最后,终于)符合语义要求;

13、a选项immediately(立即,立刻),b选项 intentionally(故意地,有意地),c选项unexpectedly(意外地,出乎意料地)带入空格 后,语义不通顺,均排除。故正确答案为d选项eventually。asurprisedbannoyedcfrighteneddconfused【答案】a【解析】空格所在句提到:if youve explored the area before, keep an eye out for familiar sightsyou may be surprised how quickly spotting a distinctive rock or

14、 tree can restore your bearings(如果你之前去过这个地方,一定要注意熟悉的景象,你或 许会 快速识别出一块特征明显的岩石或树木能 助你恢复记忆)。此句明显体现了积极 褒义的感情色彩,根据这个线索,可直接确定a选项surprised为正确答案,即:你或许会感 到惊讶a problemboptioncviewdresult【答案】b【解析】本文第一段提到:“如果你在没有电话或指南针的情况下迷路了,而且你真的 找不到北方,我们有一些技巧可以 助你回到文明社会”。空格所在处提到:另一个 : 登 到高处寻找有人类住所的标志,因此此处的another 应该与tricks构成总

15、分关系,即,空格 处所填的名词应与tricks语义相近。只有b选项option(选择,办法)符合要求。a above allbin contrastc on averaged for example【答案】d【解析】空格前提到“另一个办法就是登高来寻找有人类居住的标志”,关键词为: look for signs;空格后提到“在茂密森林里,你应该能够发现由于道路、电缆、火车轨道和 人们在树林中开辟的其他道路而造成的树木之间的空隙”,关键词为:spot gaps。而look for与spot语义相近,signs为抽象名词,gaps为具体名词,因此空格前后表是例证关系或总 分关系,故d选项for e

16、xample(例如)为正确答案。abridge bavoid cspotdseparate【答案】c【解析】本题空格所在句是对前面句子的例证,故主题一致,因此空格处需填入的动词 需和look for语义相近,故选择spot(识别,发现)。a fromb throughcbeyondd under【答案】b【解析】空格处需填入介词来和前面的动词carve及后面的名词woods构成顺畅的语义 搭配。carve woods:在森林中开辟道路, b选项 through用法最恰当,故为正确答案。a postsblinkscshadesdbreaks【答案】d【解析】本题空前有一个指示代词these,通过

17、语义,“these 16 ” 指代上文的 “roads, train tracks, and other paths”,并由定语从句“people carve through the woods”(人们在森林中开辟的)修饰。从语义上来看,breaks最合适。a artificialb mysteriousc hiddend limited【答案】a【解析】本空所处的句子“scan for 17 light sources”,与本段开头 “look for sign of human habitation ”结构一致,语义相关,空格处所填形容词和human意思相 近,选择artificial “

18、人造的”。除此之外,17题后面“such as fires and streetlights,”所 列举的两种光源的共同特点就是artificial。a finallyb consequently c incidentally d generally【答案】d【解析】空后为条件状语从句“assuming you ”,与上文的“if you”构成顺接递进 关系,选项中,只用finally表顺接。a memories b marksc notesd belongings【答案】b【解析】空后的定语从句“we leave on the landscape”,由语义得知此处应该填 “标记”,所以选ma

19、rks。a restrictb adoptc leadd expose【答案】c【解析】所填动词需要与主语 “tire blazes, tire tracks and other fearures”轮胎,轮 胎痕迹和其他标记),宾语you,以及不定式 to civilization(文明)之间构成完整语义,所 以此处填lead“引导”最合适。【试题点评】完型填空为了测试考生实际应用英语的能力和语感。具体说来,是从语篇 的角度综合测试考生的阅读理解能力、词汇的掌握和对英语习惯用语的熟悉程度、以及语法 规则的灵活运用。这部分大家一定要注重思路和寻找线索能力的训练,一般做题的基本思路 是,根据已知信

20、息去填空,根据空前后的线索来选择填什么。比方说,题目让考生填主句的 内容,那么从句中就会有相应的说明。题目让考生填动词,原文常常在别的地方出现这个动词的同义词。那么如何判断呢?首先根据需要填写动词后面出现的宾语,找到有同一宾语的 句子,该句中的动词就是所需填写词的同义词。具体相关知识点和解题思路在考研教育网强 化阶段英语强化班的完型填空部分有重点讲解。section reading comprehension part adirections:read the following four texts. answer the questions below each text by choos

21、ing a, b, c or d. mark your answers on the answer sheet. (40 points)text 1financial regulations in britain have imposed a rather unusual rule on the bosses of big banks. starting next year, any guaranteed bonus of top executives could be delayed 10 years if their banks are under investigation for wr

22、ongdoing. the main purpose of this “clawback” rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk- taking and to restore public trust in financial institution. yet officials also hope for a much larger benefit: more long term decision-making not only by banks but also bu all corporations, to build

23、a stronger economy for future generations.“short-termism” or the desire for quick profits, has worsened in publicly traded companies, says the bank of englands top economist. andrew haldane. he quotes a giant of classical economies, alfred marshall, in describing this financial impatience as acting

24、like “children who pick the plums out of their pudding to eat them at once” rather than putting them aside to be eaten last.the average time for holding a stock in both the united states and britain, he notes, has dropped from seven years to seven months in recent decades. transient investors, who d

25、emand high quarterly profits from companies, can hinder a firms efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty. this has been dubbed “quarterly capitalism”。in addition, new digital technologies have allowed more rapid trading of equities, quicker use of information, and thus

26、 shortens attention spans in financial markers. “there seems to be a predominance of short-term thinking at the expense of long-term investing,” said commissioner daniel gallagher of the us securities and exchange commission in speech this week.in the us, the sarbanes-oxley act of 2002 has pushed mo

27、st public companies to defer performance bonuses for senior executives by about a year, slightly helping reduce “short-termism.” in its latest survey of ceo pay, the wall street journal finds that “ a substantial part” of executive pay is now tied to performance.much more could be done to encourage

2019年考研英语一真题及答案详解完整版-20220902.docx(2019年考研英语二真题及答案)插图
28、“long-termism,” such as changes in the tax code and quicker disclosure of stock acquisitions. in france, shareholders who hold onto a company investment for at least two years can sometimes earn more voting rights in a company.within companies, the right compensation design can provide incentives fo

29、r executives to think beyond their own time at the company and on behalf of all stakeholders. britains new rule is a reminder to bankers that society has an interest in their performance, not just for the short term but for the long term.according to paragraph 1, one motive in imposing the new rule

30、is the .enhance bankers sense of responsibilityhelp corporations achieve larger profitsbuild a new system of financial regulationguarantee the bonuses of top executives【答案】a【解析】根据题干关键词“paragraph 1”和“one motive in imposing the new rule”回文定位在第一段第三句“the main purpose of this clawback rule is to hold ban

31、kers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institutions.”可以得出答案。alfred marshall is quoted to indicate .the conditions for generating quick profitsgovernments impatience in decision-makingthe solid structure of publicly traded companies“short-termism” in economi

32、cs activities【答案】d【解析】根据题干中的“alfred marshall”回文定位在第二段最后一句“alfred marshall, in describing this financial impatience as acting like”,可以得出答案。it is argued that the influence of transient investment on public companies can be .indirectadverseminimaltemporary【答案】b【解析】根据题干关键词“transient investment”定位第三段第二句,

33、“transient investors, can hinder a firms efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty”可以得出答案。the us and france examples are used to illustrate .the obstacles to preventing “short-termism”。the significance of long-term thinking.the approaches to promoting “long-termism”。the

34、 prevalence of short-term thinking.【答案】c【解析】根据题干定位到第五、六段,第五段为美国的例子,第六段为法国的例子,(第五段中美国延迟发放才上任一年左右的高管绩效津贴,继而促进缓解“短期主义”盛行 的现状;第六段在法国持股两年以上者拥有更大的选票权。)第六段首句承前启后讲到 “much more could be done to encourage long-termism”促进“长期主义”还有 很多做法。可以得出答案。which of the following would be the best title for the text?failure o

35、f quarterly capitalismpatience as a corporate virtuedecisiveness required of top executivesfrustration of risk-taking bankers【答案】b【解析】根据题干关键词best title可知这是一道典型的主旨大意题。根据全文可以得出 答案。grade inflation-the gradual increase in average gpas(grade-point averages) over the past few decadesis often considered a

36、product of a consumer era in higher education, in which students are treated like customers to be pleased. but another, related forcea policy often buried deep in course catalogs called “grade forgiveness”is helping raise gpas.grade forgiveness allows students to retake a course in which they receiv

37、ed a low grade, and the most recent grade or the highest grade is the only one that counts in calculating a students overall gpa.the use of this little-known practice has accelerated in recent years, as colleges continue to do their utmost to keep students in school (and paying tuition)and improve t

38、heir graduation rates. when this practice first started decades ago, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance to take a class in their first year if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses. but now most colleges save for many selective campuses, allow all

39、undergraduates, and even graduate students, to get their low grades forgiven.college officials tend to emphasize that the goal of grade forgiveness is less about the grade itself and more about encouraging students to retake courses critical to their degree program and graduation without incurring a

40、 big penalty. “untimely,” said jack miner, ohio state universitys registrar,“we see students achieve more success because they retake a course and do better in subsequent contents or master the content that allows them to graduate on time.”that said, there is a way in which grade forgiveness satisfi

41、es colleges own needs as well. for public institutions, state funds are sometimes tied partly to their success on metrics such as graduation rates and student retentionso better grades can, by boosting figures like those, mean more money. and anything that raises gpas will likely make studentswho, a

42、t the end of the day, are paying the billfeel theyve gotten a better value for their tuition dollars, which is another big concern for colleges.indeed, grade forgiveness is just another way that universities are responding to consumers expectations for higher education. since students and parents ex

43、pect a college degree to lead a job, it is in the best interest of a school to turn out graduates who are as qualified as possibleor at least appear to be. on this, students and colleges incentives seem to be aligned.what is commonly regarded as the cause of grade inflation? a.the change of course c

44、atalogs.b.students indifference to gpas. c.colleges neglect of gpas.d.the influence of consumer culture.【答案】d【解析】根据题干信息词定位到首段第一句,句子主干“grade inflation is often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education”可以得出答案。what was the original purpose of grade forgiveness?to help freshmen adapt t

45、o college learning.to maintain colleges graduation rates.to prepare graduates for a challenging future.to increase universities income from tuition.【答案】a【解析】根据题干要求定位到第三段第二句。该句中的this practice对应题干中的grade forgiveness,first started对应题干中的original,而不定式短语to give them(freshmen)a second chanceif they struggl

46、ed in their transition to college- level courses(如果大一新生在都向大学课程的过渡中有问题的话在给他们一次机会) 为目的,对应题干中的purpose,故正确答案应为a选项to help freshmen adapt to college learning( 助大一新生适应大学学习)。according to paragraph 5,grade forgiveness enable colleges to .obtain more financial supportboost their student enrollmentsimprove the

47、ir teaching qualitymeet local governments needs【答案】a【解析】根据题干关键词 “paragrph 5”,以及“grade forgiveness”和 “colleges”定位到第五段第一句话。可以得出答案。what does the phrase “to be aligned”(line 5, para.6)most probably mean?to counterbalance each other.to complement each other.to be identical with each other.to be contradic

48、tory to each other.【答案】c【解析】根据题目定位到第6段最后一句:on this, students and colleges incentives seem to be aligned.解决本题的关键是this指代的内容,根据上文since students and parents expect a college degree to lead to a job, it is in the best interest of a school to turn out graduates who are as qualified as possible-or at least

49、 appear to be. 可以得出答案。the author examines the practice of grade forgiveness by .assessing its feasibilityanalyzing the causes behind itcomparing different views on itlisting its long-run effects【答案】b【解析】根据题干,表面上问作者通过什么论述方式来探讨grade forgiveness的实践操 作,其实是考全文的主旨写作手法,属于主旨大意题。根据全文可以得出答案。text 3this year ma

50、rks exactly two countries since the publication of frankenstein; or, the modern prometheus, by mary shelley. even before the invention of the electriclight bulb, the author produced a remarkable work of speculative fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet

51、 to come.today the rapid growth of artificial intelligence (ai)raises fundamental questions:”what is intelligence, identify, orconsciousness? what makes humans humans?”what is being called artificial general intelligence, machines that would imitate the way humans think, continues to evade scientist

52、s. yet humans remain fascinated by the idea of robots that would look, move, and respond like humans, similar to those recently depicted on popular sci-fi tv series such as “westworld” and “humans”。just how people think is still far too complex to be understood, let alone reproduced, says david eagl

53、eman, a stanford university neuroscientist. “we are just in a situation where there are no good theories explaining what consciousnesss actually is and how you could ever build a machine to get there.”but that doesnt mean crucial ethical issues involving ai arent at hand. the coming use of autonomou

54、s vehicles, for example, poses thorny ethical questions. human drivers sometimes must make split-second decisions. their reactions may be a complex combination of instant reflexes, input from past driving experiences, and what their eyes and ears tell them in that moment. ai “vision” today is not ne

55、arly as sophisticated as that of humans. and to anticipate every imaginable driving situation is a difficult programming problem.whenever decisions are based on masses of data, “you quickly get into a lot of ethical questions,” notes tan kiat how, chief executive of a singapore-based agency that is

56、helping the government develop a voluntary code for the ethical use of ai. along with singapore, other governments and mega-corporations are beginning to establish their own guidelines. britain is setting up a data ethics center. india released its ai ethics strategy this spring.on june 7 google ple

57、dged not to “design or deploy ai” that would cause “overall harm,” or to develop ai-directed weapons or use ai for surveillance that would violate international norms. it also pledged not to deploy ai whose use would violate international laws or human rights.while the statement is vague, it represe

58、nts one starting point. so does the idea that decisions made by ai systems should be explainable, transparent, and fair.to put it another way: how can we make sure that the thinking of intelligent machines reflects humanitys highest values? only then will they be useful servants and not frankenstein

59、s out-of-control monster.mary shelleys novel frankenstein is mentioned because itfascinates ai scientists all over the world.has remained popular for as long as 200 years.involves some concerns raised by ai today.has sparked serious ethical controversies.【答案】c【解析】由题干表述可判断本题为典型的观点例证题,所证观点就在例证前后,该例子 出

60、现在篇首,引出主题在后。由此可知本题定位句为第一段最后一句话。由此可以得出答 案。in david eaglemans opinion, our current knowledge of consciousnesshelps explain artificial intelligence.can be misleading to robot making.inspires popular sci-fi tv series.is too limited for us to reproduce it.【答案】d【解析】根据题干中的david eagleman定位到文中第四段第一句,该段第二句the

61、re are no good theories与题干中的knowledge属于等价代换,该段第二句中的 consciousness与题干中的consciousness对应,第一句表明光人们如何思考就复杂到难以理 解的程度更不用说要复制它了,第二句表明我们没有解释什么是consciousness的理论,与 选项d吻合。the solution to the ethical issues brought by autonomous vehiclescan hardly ever be found.is still beyond our capacity.causes little public c

62、oncern.has aroused much curiosity.【答案】b【解析】题干中的autonomous vehicles定位到第五段第二句。该句出现for example,可知autonomous vehicle是具体的例子。篇中的例子是为了证明论点,应往前 看,即证明第一句的观点:涉及人工智能的伦理问题在我们身边(注意这里doesnt和 arent为双重否定),说明问题依然存在。由此可以得出答案。the authors attitude toward googles pledge is one ofaffirmation.skepticism.contempt.respect.【

63、答案】a【解析】根据题干中的the authors attitude,googles pledges。回文定位到第七 段,第八段,但其七段都是在讲googles pledge,继续看第八段,开头while,转折, while the statement is vague,与vague相反的即是观点,这个地方没有说是谁的观点,无 人认领的观点即是作者的观点。由此可以得出答案。which of the following would be the best title for the text?ais future: in the hands of tech giantsfrankenstein,

64、 the novel predicting the age of aithe conscience of ai: complex but inevitableai shall be killers once out of control【答案】c【解析】本文首段通过引用mary shelley的书引出本文要探讨的话题新技术所引发的道 德问题。第二段更是明确指出ai引起了一些问题。第三段和第四段对第二段提出的两个问题 进行了详细的阐述,表明我们并不能确定智能化的程度以及因为所处环境的复杂无法定义人 类自我意识。而在第五段转折之后明确指出ai所涉及的道德问题已经触手可及了。全篇复现 了ai和con

65、science这两个关键词,因此正确答案为c。text 4states will be able to force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases under a supreme court decision thursday that will leave shoppers with lighter wallets but is a big financial win for states.the supreme courts opinion thursday overruled a pair of d

66、ecades-old decisions that states said cost them billions of dollars in lost revenue annually. the decisions made it more difficult for states to collect sales tax on certain online purchases.the cases the court overturned said that if a business was shipping a customers purchase to a state where the business didnt have a physical presence such as a warehouse or office, the business didnt have to collect sales tax for the state. customers were generally responsible for paying the sales tax to the

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