2014年考研英语阅读真题(一)text1——刷题思路(2014年考研英语一)

2014年考研英语阅读真题(一)text1——刷题思路(2014年考研英语一)缩略图
2024年 2月 13日 0 Comments

本文选自2013年6月29日的《英国卫报》。本文是一篇政治评论性文章,作者有明确的观点态度。本文作者批评了英国财政大臣乔治?奥斯本修改的失业救济政策,认为修改后的失业救济政策并未对失业者的福利救济起到作用。文章第一段介绍了乔治?奥斯本提出的新的失业救济方案;第二、三、四段作者通过进一步的分析明确了自己的观点。
一、数一数全文一共由几个段落组成,标上序号,全文有4段。
二、最后一题,看看是不是中心主旨题:
25. to which of the following would the author most probably agree?
[a] unemployment benefits should not be made conditional.
[b] the british welfare system indulges jobseekers’ laziness.
[c] the jobseekers’ allowance has met their actual needs.
[d] osborne’s reforms will reduce the risk of unemployment.
作者最有可能同意下面哪一项?
a. 失业救济金不应该有附加条件。
b. 英国福利制度会助长求职者的惰性。
c.求职者的津贴满足了他们的实际需要。
d. 奥斯本的改革将会降低失业的风险。
有would,这是一个推断题,可是段主旨;也可能是中心主旨。
推断段主旨题做法:第一句,中间的转折句,最后一句;也可反向定位,从备选答案出发,个个排除。
【葵花宝典】西方的作者,和事佬,逻辑上是否自恰,不重要,政治一定正确。a. 失业救济金不应该有附加条件可能正确。又如2021年英语(一)
21. the author holds that this year’s increase in rail passengers fares ______.作者认为,今年铁路乘客票价的上涨???
a. will ease train operators’ burden将会减轻列车运营商的负担
b. has kept pace with inflation跟上了通货膨胀的步伐
c. is a big surprise to commuters这对通勤者来说是一个很大的惊喜。
d. remains an unreasonable measure仍然是一种不合理的措施
答案是d.政治正确。要不他失去选民。
?
三、听懂人话(看看题干,审题,看老师问了你什么?文章的中心是什么,结构是什么?)
21. george osborne’s scheme was intended to
乔治·奥斯本计划旨在;
be intended to打算…,意图是
【考点】事实细节,定位点:osborne’s scheme,
【葵花宝典】隐性定位点:intended to与之对应的在文章中可能出现的单词有:in order to、so as to、目地状语、on purpose; objective
22. the phrase “to sign on” (para. 2) most probably means
短语“ to sign on”(第二段第三行)最有可能的意思是[?? ].
sign符号,在上面打个记号。
【葵花宝典】同样的形式有subscribe,(sub在下面, +scrib写+e→在下面写上名字)向下写,认捐,捐赠; 签署,题词,署名;
坐着是向上写,站着是向下写,姿势不同,本质一样。
【考点】词义句意,用本句,或前后句夹的方法。
23. what promoted the chancellor to develop his scheme?
是什么促使财政大臣推行了他的计划?
财政大臣的计划在题干中反复出现,可能是中心话题。
【葵花宝典】定位点promote [pr??m??t] v.促进; 促销 ;词根: mot=move,表示运动”;
隐性定位点:同意词定位boost,词根相同的mot=move。
【考点】事实细节答案在第二或三段;二段后半部分,三段前半部分。
24. according to paragraph 3, being unemployed makes one feel
根据第三段可知,失业给人的感觉是[? ]不爽。being unemployed动名词被动语态,不是好事。
employee? [?m?pl??i:]? ?n.? 雇工,雇员,职工;
employee,雇员(被动);employer雇主(主动)。]
25. to which of the following would the author most probably agree?
作者最有可能同意下面哪一项? 答案在第四段。
题干中看到的信息是:财政大臣的计划,失业,“to sign on”;大意是:财政大臣关于失业救济发放的计划,如何登记失业救济。
?
四、顺藤摸瓜,根据中心:顺藤是顺着题干这根藤,摸到答案。也就是说:根据题干的具体情况和提示信息,利用不同的解题方法回到原文逐一寻找每一道题的准确答案信息来源或依据。答案必须有依据。
?
21. george osborne’s scheme was intended to do? sth.? (0.
2014年考研英语阅读真题(一)text1——刷题思路(2014年考研英语一)插图
514)
[a] provide the unemployed with easier access to benefits.
[b] encourage jobseekers’ active engagement in job seeking.
[c] motivate the unemployed to report voluntarily.
[d] guarantee jobseekers’ legitimate right to benefits.
provide …with
legitimate [l??d??t?m?t] adj.合法的,合理的; 正规的(leg=law)
乔治·奥斯本计划旨在
a.给失业者提供更便利的获得救济的途径
b.鼓励求职者积极寻找工作
c.激励失业者主动报到
d.保证求职者获得救济的合法权利
题型:事实细节题
【题干关键信息为】: george osbornes和 scheme。
隐性定位点:intended to 目地,in order to; so as to; objective; purpose; point(s)等表目地的词.
【精准定位】:首先回到一段1句。①in order to “change lives for the better” and reduce “dependency,” introduced the “upfront work search” scheme.该句提到,george osborne推行“预备求职”计划的目的是“使生活更美好”并减少“依赖”。奥斯本这一计划的目的是鼓励失业者(即求职者)积极寻找工作,以此减少他们对政府的“依赖”。b选项表述与此一致,故正确。
?
【1段】①in order to “change lives for the better” and reduce “dependency,” george osborne, chancellor of the exchequer, introduced the “upfront work search” scheme. ②only if the jobless arrive at the jobcentre with a cv, register for online job search, and start looking for work will they be eligible for benefit—and then they should report weekly rather than fortnightly. ③what could be more reasonable?
【注释】
chancellor [?t?ɑ?ns?l?(r)] n.(德国或奥地利的)总理; 财政大臣; (名誉)校长
upfront [??p?fr?nt] adj.诚实的,坦率的
an upfront fee预付费用
cv简历
②only if the jobless arrive at the jobcentre with a cv, register for online job search, and start looking for work will they be eligible for benefit—and then they should report weekly rather than fortnightly.
以only开头,will they be eligible for benefit,实现部分倒装。
be eligible for有资格的; 符合…的条件
eligible (e出+lig选择,收集+ible……的→选出来的)
qualify for使)有…资格; 受到…
★ benefit [?ben?f?t]好处,利益,福利费; 保险金,
(bene善,好+fit做→做事后的好处→利益)
fortnightly adj.两星期一次的;
③what could be more reasonable? 表示作者讽刺。
?
?
【1段译文】(21)为了“使生活更美好”并减少“依赖”,(英国)财政大臣乔治·奥斯本推行了“预备求职”计划。失业者只有带上简历到就业中心,注册在线求职,并开始找工作,才有资格获得救济金。同时,他们之后应该每周而不是每两周才报到一次。还能有什么计划比这更合理呢?
由【1段】③what could be more reasonable? 【2段】①more apparent reasonableness followed.表明作者对财政大臣的计划持反面的态度。
22. the phrase “to sign on” (para. 2) most probably means
【葵花宝典】短语“ to sign on”(第二段第三行)最有可能的意思是[?? ].
sign符号,在上面打个记号。
同样的形式有subscribe,(sub在下面, +scrib写+e→在下面写上名字)向下写,认捐,捐赠; 签署,题词,署名;
向上和向下写,没区别,词意相近。[c] to register for an allowance from the government.
正确。将[c]代入,“those first few days should be spent looking for work, not looking to register for an allowance from the government.逻辑自恰,天衣无缝。
【考点】词义句意,句内逻辑,后面解释前面,或前后句夹的方法。
22. the phrase “to sign on” (para. 2) most probably means(0.441)
[a] to check on the availability of jobs at the jobcentre.
[b] to accept the government’s restrictions on the allowance.
[c] to register for an allowance from the government.
[d] to attend a governmental job-training program.
register ?red??st?(r)] v.登记; 给…注册; 显示
短语“ to sign on”(第二段第三行)最有可能的意思是[?? ].
a.查看就业中心有无工作机会
b.接受政府对津贴的限制
c.登记申领政府津贴
d.参加政府的职业培训项目
【题干关键信息为】:“ to sign on”和line3,para.2。
【精准定位】:1、出现的句子中夹:首先回到二段3句。该句提到,失业最初的那几天应该用来找工作( looking for work),而不是 looking to sign on。由此可知, looking to sign on与 looking for work语义相对立。a.查看就业中心有无工作机会d.参加政府的职业培训项目,排除。
2、前后句子夹:
二段②句提到,求职者将要经过七天的等待期才能领到失业津贴,④句提到,我们之所以这样做是因为,这样可以 助人们尽快找到工作,远离救济。可见“找工作( looking for work)”与“领取失业津贴”在语义上相对立, b排除;由此可推知 to sign on应表达“领取失业津贴”之意。c选项内容与此相符,故正确。
【2段】①more apparent reasonableness followed. ②there will now be a seven-day wait for the jobseeker’s allowance. ③“those first few days should be spent looking for work, not looking to sign on,” he claimed. ④“we’re doing these things because we know they help people stay off benefits and help those on benefits get into work faster.” ⑤help? ⑥really? ⑦on first hearing, this was the socially concerned chancellor, trying to change lives for the better, complete with “reforms” to an obviously indulgent system that demands too little effort from the newly unemployed to find work, and subsidises laziness. ⑧what motivated him, we were to understand, was his zeal for “fundamental fairness”—protecting the taxpayer, controlling spending and ensuring that only the most deserving claimants received their benefits.
【注释】more apparent reasonableness followed。是不是反语,看看后面是否有转折;由⑤help? ⑥really?反问,可知是反语。
zeal [zi?l] n.热情,激情;
complete with包括
23. what promoted the chancellor to develop his scheme? (0.54)
【考点】事实细节,答案在第二后半段或三段
[a] a desire to secure a better life for all.
[b] an eagerness to protect the unemployed.
[c] an urge to be generous to the claimants.
[d] a passion to ensure fairness for taxpayers.
【葵花宝典】promote [pr??m??t] v.促进; 促销 ;词根: mot=move,表示运动”;
是什么促使财政大臣推行了他的计划?
a.确保所有人拥有更好生活的愿望。
b.保护失业者的渴望。
c.慷慨对待申请人的强烈愿望。
d.确保对纳税人公平的热忱。
【精准定位】:题干关键信息为, what promoted the chancellor to develop his scheme,二段前7句说的是一个意思,二段8句说的是另一个意思。题干关键信息与该句中的 what motivated him中motivate与题干中promote的词根相同。表示的意思相同,him即指代上文中提到的 chancellor,也就是乔治·奥斯本。该句提到,真正激励他的是对“基本公平”的热忱——保护纳税人、控制开支并确保只有最需要救济的申请人才能领到救济金, a passion to ensure fairness for taxpayers.与 protecting the taxpayer意思相近
故d选项正确。
?
【2段译文】该计划貌似有更明显的合理之处。(22)现在,求职者将要经过一个七天的等待期才能拿到津贴。他声称,“失业最初的那几天应该用来找工作,而不是去登记(申领津贴)。”“我们做这些事情是因为我们知道,这将 助人们远离救济,并 助那些依靠救济的人更快地找到工作。” 助?真的吗?咋一听,会让人觉得他是一位心系社会的大臣,他试图通过“改革”一项明显具有纵容性的制度来使人们的生活更美好,该制度对刚失业者找工作付出的努力几乎没有要求,因此助长了惰性。(23)我们应该理解,真正激励他的是对“基本公平”的热忱———保护纳税人、控制开支并确保只有最需要救济的申请人才能领到救济金。
24. according to paragraph 3, being unemployed makes one feel
[a] uneasy.
[b] enraged.
[c] insulted.
[d] guilty.
根据第三段可知,失业给人的感觉是[? ]
a.不安的
b.愤怒的
c.受辱的
d.内疚的
【精准定位】:题干关键信息为, paragraph3和 being unemployed。首先回到三段1句,其中 being unemployed与该句中的 losing a job表意相同。该句提到,失业令人痛苦( hurting),但选项中并无“痛苦”一词或其同义词,故需结合下文。
三段2句进一步描述了失业者的状态,即“失业在经济上令人害怕、在心理上让人尴尬”,a选项 uneasy(不安的)恰好体现了失业者的这一感受,故正确。
失业令人痛苦或让人尴尬,但还不至于到达愤怒或感觉被羞辱的程度,故排除b选项 enraged(愤怒的)和c选项 insulted(羞辱的)。d选项 guilty(内疚的)在文中并无任何依据,故也排除。
?
【3段】①losing a job is hurting: you don’t skip down to the jobcentre with a song in your heart, delighted at the prospect of doubling your income from the generous state. ②it is financially terrifying, psychologically embarrassing and you know that support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. ③you are now not wanted; you are now excluded from the work environment that offers purpose and structure in your life. ④worse, the crucial income to feed yourself and your family and pay the bills has disappeared. ⑤ask anyone newly unemployed what they want and the answer is always: a job.
【3段译文】(24)失业令人痛苦:你绝不会心中哼唱、蹦蹦跳跳地去就业中心,欣喜地期待着慷慨的政府让你的收入翻番。(24)失业在经济上令人害怕、在心理上让人尴尬,并且你知道,失业救济微乎其微,也很难得到。你现在不被需要,被排除在能够赋予你人生目标和规划的职场之外。更糟糕的是,用来养活自己和家人、支付各种账单的至关重要的收入也不复存在。问问任何一个刚失业的人想要什么,答案永远都是:一份工作。
25. to which of the following would the author most probably agree?(0.336)
[a] unemployment benefits should not be made conditional.
[b] the british welfare system indulges jobseekers’ laziness.
[c] the jobseekers’ allowance has met their actual needs.
[d] osborne’s reforms will reduce the risk of unemployment.
作者最有可能同意下面哪一项?
a. 失业救济金不应该有附加条件。
b. 英国福利制度会助长求职者的惰性。
c.求职者的津贴满足了他们的实际需要。
d. 奥斯本的改革将会降低失业的风险。
有would,这是一个推断题,可是段主旨;也可能是中心主旨。
推断题做法:第一句,中间的转折句,最后一句;也可反向定位,从备选答案出发,个个排除。
最后一句转折句⑤instead, the claimant receives a time-limited “allowance,” conditional on actively seeking a job; no entitlement and no insurance, at £71.70 a week, one of the least generous in the eu.
答案只能是a. 失业救济金不应该有附加条件。它是对⑤句的抽象,总结。
从态度上看:奥斯本的改革发救济金是有条件,作者反对,是无条件的。
?
【4段】①but in osborneland, your first instinct is to fall into dependency—permanent dependency if you can get it—supported by a state only too ready to indulge your falsehood. ②it is as though 20 years of ever-tougher reforms of the job search and benefit administration system never happened. ③the principle of british welfare is no longer that you can insure yourself against the risk of unemployment and receive unconditional payments if the disaster happens. ④even the very phrase “jobseeker’s allowance” is about redefining the unemployed as a “jobseeker” who had no fundamental right to a benefit he or she has earned through making national insurance contributions. ⑤instead, the claimant receives a time-limited “allowance,” conditional on actively seeking a job; no entitlement and no insurance, at £71.70 a week, one of the least generous in the eu.
【注释】
★too…to前面有only ,but ,not ,all, never时表强调。
a state only too ready to indulge your falsehood太愿意放任你错误的政府。
本段的大意:奥斯本是个吝啬鬼(miser)。
【4段译文】但在奥斯本的世界,你最初的本能反应是陷入依赖之中——如果你能得到它的话,就会产生永久的依赖——它被一个很愿意放任你错误的政府所支持。这仿佛20年来日益严厉的求职和福利管理体制改革从来没有发生过一样。英国社会福利的原则不再确保你可以抵御失业的风险,也不再确保在灾难发生时你可以获得无条件的救济。甚至是“求职者津贴”这一术语,也将失业者重新定义为不具有领取救济金这一基本权利的“求职者”,而这一权利是他或她通过缴纳国民保险所获得的。(25)取而代之的是,申请人会获得一份有时间限制的“津贴”,得到这份“津贴”的前提是积极寻找工作;没有权利、没有保险,只有一个星期7170英镑——欧盟国家中最吝啬的“津贴”之一.
重难点词汇注解:
1. chancellor of the exchequer:(英国) 财政大臣。chancellor [?t?ɑ?ns?l?(r)] n. (英国)财政大臣;exchequer [?ks?t?ek?(r)] n. [the ~](英国等国的) 财政部?
2. upfront [??p?fr?nt] adj. 预付的;预交的?
(up向上+front前面→在前面,在上面)
3. scheme [ski?m] n. 计划;方案?
4. cv [?si? ?vi?] n. [= curriculum vitae]履 历,简历?
5. eligible [?el?d??bl] adj. 有资格的;合格 的;具备条件的?
(e出+lig选择,收集+ible……的→选出来的)
6. benefit [?ben?f?t] n. 福利费(政府对失 业者、病人等提供的补助金)
??? (bene善,好+fit做→做事后的好处→利益)
7. fortnightly [?f??tna?tli] adv. 两星期一次地
的缩写
8. allowance [??la??ns] n. 津贴;补贴;补助?
(allow允许+ance;宽容→津贴,补助)
9. complete with sth.:包括,含有(额 外部分或特征)?
10. indulgent [?n?d?ld??nt] adj. 纵容的;放 纵的?
11. subsidise [?s?bs?da?z] v. 资助;补助?
12. zeal [zi?l] n. 热情;激情?
13. claimant [?kle?m?nt] n. (因失业等)领 取救济金者
(claim=cry out)
14. skip [sk?p] v. 蹦蹦跳跳地走?
15. prospect [?pr?spekt] n. 前景;展望;设想?(pro=before;spect=look)
16. state [ste?t] n. 政府?
17. psychologically [?sa?k??l?d??kli] adv. 心 理上地?
18. embarrassing [?m?b?r?s??] adj. 令人尴 尬的,使人难堪的?
(em进入+barr栏+ass表动词→被栏住→使难堪)
19. minimal [?m?n?ml] adj. 极小的;极少的?
20. exclude [?k?sklu?d] v. 把……排斥在外?
(ex=out;clude=close)
21. feed [fi?d] v. 养,养活(全家、一群人)
feed ?sb/sth (on) sth
feed sth to sb/sth
22. dependency [d??pend?nsi] n. 依靠,依赖?
(de=down; pend悬挂)
23. permanent [?p??m?n?nt] adj. 永久的;永 恒的;长久的
?(per自始至终+man拿住+ent……的)
24. ready [?redi] adj. 愿意的,乐意的?
25. falsehood [?f??lsh?d] n. 虚假;说谎; 谎言?
(false犯错误,欺骗+hood表名词)
26. insure [?n????(r)] v. 投保;给……保险?
(sure=sure,表示)
27. unconditional [??nk?n?d???nl] adj. 无条件 的;无限制的?
(un=not+conditional有条件的)
28. about [??ba?t] prep. 目的是;为了;涉 及……方面?
29. conditional [k?n?d???nl] adj. 以……为条 件的?
30. entitlement [?n?ta?tlm?nt] n. (拥有某物 或做某事的)权利,资格
(en进入……之中 ;title头衔;-ment后缀)

发表回复

您的电子邮箱地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注