2024年 2月 13日 0 Comments

passage3注解:标题为红色,翻译为蓝色,分析为绿色。????????of all the components of a good night’s sleep, dreams seem to be least within our control. in dreams, a window opens into a world where logic is suspended and dead people speak. a century ago, freud formulated his revolutionary theory that dreams were the disguised shadows of our unconscious desires and fears; by the late 1970s, neurologists had switched to thinking of them as just “mental noise”—the random byproducts of the neural-repair work that goes on during sleep. now researchers suspect that dreams are part of the mind’s emotional thermostat, regulating moods while the brain is “off-line.” and one leading authority says that these intensely powerful mental events can be not only harnessed but actually brought under conscious control, to help us sleep and feel better. “it’s your dream,” says rosalind cartwright, chair of psychology at chicago’s medical center. “if you don’t like it, change it.”

1.第一句:least 在此处是little最高级,little在这里表示否定,故least,也就是翻译成最不,在原文翻译成“最不受控制的”。

????????evidence from brain imaging supports this view. the brain is as active during rem (rapid eye movement) sleep—when most vivid dreams occur—as it is when fully awake, says dr. eric nofzinger at the university of pittsburgh. but not all parts of the brain are equally involved; the limbic脑边缘 system (the “emotional brain”) is especially active, while the prefrontal cortex前额皮层,思维和推理的中心地带?(the center of intellect and reasoning) is relatively quiet. “we wake up from dreams happy or depressed, and those feelings can stay with us all day.” says stanford sleep researcher dr. william dement.

1.limbic =marginal,但是limbic是解剖学专业词,专指大脑边缘的

????????the link between dreams and emotions shows up among the patients in cartwright’s clinic. most people seem to have more bad dreams early in the night, progressing toward happier ones before awakening, suggesting that they are working through negative feelings generated during the day. because our conscious mind is occupied with daily life we don’t always think about the emotional significance of the day’s events—until, it appears, we begin to dream.
????????and this process need not be left to the unconscious. cartwright believes one can exercise conscious control over recurring bad dreams. as soon as you awaken, identify what is upsetting about the dream. visualize how you would like it to end instead; the next time it occurs, try to wake up just enough to control its course. with much practice people can learn to, literally, do it in their sleep.

1.be left to?由……来决定
2.literally 按照字面意义地,逐字地;真正地(本文选这个意思,很重要,属于熟词辟意),确实地;=really

????????at the end of the day, there’s probably little reason to pay attention to our dreams at all unless they keep us from sleeping or “we wake up in a panic,” cartwright says. terrorism, economic uncertainties and general feelings of insecurity have increased people’s anxiety. those suffering from persistent nightmares should seek help from a therapist. for the rest of us, the brain has its ways of working through bad feelings. sleep—or rather dream—on it and you’ll feel better in the morning.

1.at the end of the day?说穿了,说到底,说白了


31. researchers have come to believe that dreams ________.
[a] can be modified in their courses
[b] are susceptible to emotional changes
[c] reflect our innermost desires and fears
[d] are a random outcome of neural repairs
[a] 在形成过程中可以被改变
[b] 容易受到情绪变化的影响
[c] 反应了我们内心深处的欲望和恐惧
[d] 是神经修复中偶然产生的结果

32. by referring to the limbic system, the author intends to show ________.
[a] its function in our dreams
[b] the mechanism of rem sleep
[c] the relation of dreams to emotions
[d] its difference from the prefrontal cortex
[a] 它在我们梦中发挥的作用
[b] 快速动眼睡眠的机制
[c] 梦和情绪间的关系
[d] 它与前额皮层的区别

3. the negative feelings generated during the day tend to ________.
[a] aggravate in our unconscious mind
[b] develop into happy dreams
[c] persist till the time we fall asleep
[d] show up in dreams early at night
[a] 在潜意识中加重
[b] 演变成快乐的梦
[c] 会一直持续到我们睡着为止
[d] 在夜晚早期的梦中出现

34. cartwright seems to suggest that ________.
[a] waking up in time is essential to the ridding of bad dreams
[b] visualizing bad dreams helps bring them under control
[c] dreams should be left to their natural progression
[d] dreaming may not entirely belong to the unconscious
[a] 及时醒来对于摆脱噩梦至关重要
[b] 设想噩梦有助于控制它
[c] 应该让梦自然推进
[d] 做梦可能不完全属于无意识行为

35. what advice might cartwright give to those who sometimes have bad dreams?
[a] lead your life as usual.
[b] seek professional help.
[c] exercise conscious control.
[d] avoid anxiety in the daytime.
[a] 像平常一样生活。
[b] 寻求专家 助。
[c] 练习有意识的控制。
[d] 避免白天产生焦虑。
二、核心词汇与超纲词汇1. component n. 组成部分,部件,元件
2. suspend v. 悬挂;暂停,暂缓,使暂时无效
3. formulate v. 构想出,系统地阐述
4. thermostat n. 自动调温器
5. disguise 伪装,掩饰
6. neurologist n. 神经病学家,神经科医师
7. switch v. 转变,转向
8. random adj. 随机的,任意的
9. byproduct n. 副产品
10. regulate v. 调节;管理,控制
11. harness v. 治理,利用;支配,控制
12. recur v. 反复出现,再发生
13. visualize v. 想象,设想;使形象化
14. at the end of the day 说穿了,说到底,说白了
15. limbic adj. 边缘的,脑边缘系统的
16. prefrontal adj. 前额的
17.?cortex?n. (植物的)皮层,树皮,(脑或肾的)皮层,皮质
三、阅读答案:a c d d a四、全文翻译:?????????在睡一个好觉的所有因素中,梦似乎是最无法控制的一个。在梦中,窗户通向的世界里,逻辑暂时失去了效用,死人开口说话。一个世纪前,弗洛伊德阐述了革命性的理论,即梦是人们潜意识中的欲望和恐惧经伪装后的预示;到了 20 世纪 70 年代末期,神经病学家们转而认为梦是“精神噪音”,即睡眠时进行的神经修复活动的一种杂乱的副产品。目前,研究人员猜想梦是大脑情感自动调节系统的组成部分,当大脑处于“掉线”状态时对情绪进行调整。一名主要的权威人士说,梦这种异常强烈的精神活动不仅能被驾驭,事实上,还可以有意识地加以控制,以 助我们更好地睡眠和感觉。芝加哥医疗中心心理学系主任罗莎琳德·卡特赖特说,“这是你的梦,如果你不喜欢,就改变它。”
????????卡特赖特说,说到底,只要梦不使我们无法睡眠或“从梦中惊醒”,就没有理由太在意所做的梦。恐怖主义、经济不确定及通常的不安全感都增加了人们的焦虑。那些长期受噩梦折磨的人应该寻求专家 助,而对其他人来说,大脑有自动消除不良情绪的方法。安心睡觉甚至做梦,早上醒来时你会感觉好多了。


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