2005年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第三篇】

2005年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第三篇】缩略图
2024年 2月 13日 0 Comments

passage3注解:标题为红色,翻译为蓝色,分析为绿色。????????of all the components of a good night’s sleep, dreams seem to be least within our control. in dreams, a window opens into a world where logic is suspended and dead people speak. a century ago, freud formulated his revolutionary theory that dreams were the disguised shadows of our unconscious desires and fears; by the late 1970s, neurologists had switched to thinking of them as just “mental noise”—the random byproducts of the neural-repair work that goes on during sleep. now researchers suspect that dreams are part of the mind’s emotional thermostat, regulating moods while the brain is “off-line.” and one leading authority says that these intensely powerful mental events can be not only harnessed but actually brought under conscious control, to help us sleep and feel better. “it’s your dream,” says rosalind cartwright, chair of psychology at chicago’s medical center. “if you don’t like it, change it.”

1.第一句:least 在此处是little最高级,little在这里表示否定,故least,也就是翻译成最不,在原文翻译成“最不受控制的”。
2.harness=control

????????evidence from brain imaging supports this view. the brain is as active during rem (rapid eye movement) sleep—when most vivid dreams occur—as it is when fully awake, says dr. eric nofzinger at the university of pittsburgh. but not all parts of the brain are equally involved; the limbic脑边缘 system (the “emotional brain”) is especially active, while the prefrontal cortex前额皮层,思维和推理的中心地带?(the center of intellect and reasoning) is relatively quiet. “we wake up from dreams happy or depressed, and those feelings can stay with us all day.” says stanford sleep researcher dr. william dement.

1.limbic =marginal,但是limbic是解剖学专业词,专指大脑边缘的

????????the link between dreams and emotions shows up among the patients in cartwright’s clinic. most people seem to have more bad dreams early in the night, progressing toward happier ones before awakening, suggesting that they are working through negative feelings generated during the day. because our conscious mind is occupied with daily life we don’t always think about the emotional significance of the day’s events—until, it appears, we begin to dream.
????????and this process need not be left to the unconscious. cartwright believes one can exercise conscious control over recurring bad dreams. as soon as you awaken, identify what is upsetting about the dream. visualize how you would like it to end instead; the next time it occurs, try to wake up just enough to control its course. with much practice people can learn to, literally, do it in their sleep.

1.be left to?由……来决定
2.literally 按照字面意义地,逐字地;真正地(本文选这个意思,很重要,属于熟词辟意),确实地;=really

????????at the end of the day, there’s probably little reason to pay attention to our dreams at all unless they keep us from sleeping or “we wake up in a panic,” cartwright says. terrorism, economic uncertainties and general feelings of insecurity have increased people’s anxiety. those suffering from persistent nightmares should seek help from a therapist. for the rest of us, the brain has its ways of working through bad feelings. sleep—or rather dream—on it and you’ll feel better in the morning.

1.at the end of the day?说穿了,说到底,说白了
2.therapist专家,其实来源于词therapy,疗法,心理疗法。而therapist就是掌握心理疗法的人。

一、文章结构分析这是一篇以梦为主题的科普性文章。
文章主要论说了梦可以被控制的现代观点。
文章首段首先回顾了传统的有关梦的观点,然后在段末提出了梦的现代观点,也就是本文的主题。
第二至四段用试验研究实证这一观点,并指出人可以通过练习来减少噩梦。
第五段就梦的性质对不同的人提出相应的建议。

31. researchers have come to believe that dreams ________.
[a] can be modified in their courses
[b] are susceptible to emotional changes
[c] reflect our innermost desires and fears
[d] are a random outcome of neural repairs
31.研究者逐渐认为梦______。
[a] 在形成过程中可以被改变
[b] 容易受到情绪变化的影响
[c] 反应了我们内心深处的欲望和恐惧
[d] 是神经修复中偶然产生的结果

32. by referring to the limbic system, the author intends to show ________.
[a] its function in our dreams
[b] the mechanism of rem sleep
[c] the relation of dreams to emotions
[d] its difference from the prefrontal cortex
32.作者提到脑的边缘系统是为了说明__________。
[a] 它在我们梦中发挥的作用
[b] 快速动眼睡眠的机制
[c] 梦和情绪间的关系
[d] 它与前额皮层的区别

3
2005年考研英语阅读真题及解析【第三篇】插图
3. the negative feelings generated during the day tend to ________.
[a] aggravate in our unconscious mind
[b] develop into happy dreams
[c] persist till the time we fall asleep
[d] show up in dreams early at night
33.白天产生的不良情绪往往_________。
[a] 在潜意识中加重
[b] 演变成快乐的梦
[c] 会一直持续到我们睡着为止
[d] 在夜晚早期的梦中出现

34. cartwright seems to suggest that ________.
[a] waking up in time is essential to the ridding of bad dreams
[b] visualizing bad dreams helps bring them under control
[c] dreams should be left to their natural progression
[d] dreaming may not entirely belong to the unconscious
34.卡特赖特似乎在暗示_______。
[a] 及时醒来对于摆脱噩梦至关重要
[b] 设想噩梦有助于控制它
[c] 应该让梦自然推进
[d] 做梦可能不完全属于无意识行为

35. what advice might cartwright give to those who sometimes have bad dreams?
[a] lead your life as usual.
[b] seek professional help.
[c] exercise conscious control.
[d] avoid anxiety in the daytime.
35.对那些有时作噩梦的人,卡特赖特可能给出的建议是什么?
[a] 像平常一样生活。
[b] 寻求专家 助。
[c] 练习有意识的控制。
[d] 避免白天产生焦虑。
二、核心词汇与超纲词汇1. component n. 组成部分,部件,元件
2. suspend v. 悬挂;暂停,暂缓,使暂时无效
3. formulate v. 构想出,系统地阐述
4. thermostat n. 自动调温器
5. disguise 伪装,掩饰
6. neurologist n. 神经病学家,神经科医师
7. switch v. 转变,转向
8. random adj. 随机的,任意的
9. byproduct n. 副产品
10. regulate v. 调节;管理,控制
11. harness v. 治理,利用;支配,控制
12. recur v. 反复出现,再发生
13. visualize v. 想象,设想;使形象化
14. at the end of the day 说穿了,说到底,说白了
15. limbic adj. 边缘的,脑边缘系统的
16. prefrontal adj. 前额的
17.?cortex?n. (植物的)皮层,树皮,(脑或肾的)皮层,皮质
三、阅读答案:a c d d a四、全文翻译:?????????在睡一个好觉的所有因素中,梦似乎是最无法控制的一个。在梦中,窗户通向的世界里,逻辑暂时失去了效用,死人开口说话。一个世纪前,弗洛伊德阐述了革命性的理论,即梦是人们潜意识中的欲望和恐惧经伪装后的预示;到了 20 世纪 70 年代末期,神经病学家们转而认为梦是“精神噪音”,即睡眠时进行的神经修复活动的一种杂乱的副产品。目前,研究人员猜想梦是大脑情感自动调节系统的组成部分,当大脑处于“掉线”状态时对情绪进行调整。一名主要的权威人士说,梦这种异常强烈的精神活动不仅能被驾驭,事实上,还可以有意识地加以控制,以 助我们更好地睡眠和感觉。芝加哥医疗中心心理学系主任罗莎琳德·卡特赖特说,“这是你的梦,如果你不喜欢,就改变它。”
????????大脑造影的证据支持了以上观点。匹兹堡大学的埃里克博士说,在出现清晰梦境的快速动眼睡眠中大脑和清醒时一样活跃。但并非大脑的所有部分都一样,脑边缘系统(“情绪大脑”)异常活跃,而前额皮层(思维和推理的中心地带)则相对平静。斯坦福睡眠研究员威廉·迪蒙特博士说:“我们从梦中醒来,或者高兴或者沮丧,这些情绪会伴随我们一整天。”
????????梦和情绪之间的联系在卡特赖特诊所的病人身上显露出来了。大多数人似乎在晚上入睡的较早阶段做更多不好的梦,而在快醒来前会逐渐做开心一些的梦,这说明人们在梦里渐渐克服了白天的不良情绪。因为清醒时我们的头脑被日常生活琐事占据着,所以并不总想到白天发生的事情对我们情绪的影响,直到我们开始做梦,这种影响才出现。
????????这一过程不一定是无意识的。卡特赖特认为人们可以练习有意识地控制噩梦的重演。你一醒来就立刻确定梦中有什么在困扰你,设想一下你所希望的梦的结局,下次再做同样的梦时,试图醒来以控制它的进程。通过多次练习,人们完全可以学会在梦中这样做。
????????卡特赖特说,说到底,只要梦不使我们无法睡眠或“从梦中惊醒”,就没有理由太在意所做的梦。恐怖主义、经济不确定及通常的不安全感都增加了人们的焦虑。那些长期受噩梦折磨的人应该寻求专家 助,而对其他人来说,大脑有自动消除不良情绪的方法。安心睡觉甚至做梦,早上醒来时你会感觉好多了。

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